Appendix C: Summaries of interim papers and events attended
Briefing Paper 1/2011. Competence
Current legal education and training models in England and Wales rely only in part on loose competence frameworks. Although a revised competence system or outcomes statements will not be a direct output of the LETR research, it is important to understand the basic strengths and weaknesses of competence-based models in evaluating possible ways forward for the regulation of legal education and training. This briefing paper thus provides a guide to the notion of competence and the way it is used in competence-based systems of learning. It outlines the key issues concerning competence and the use of competencies, and cautions against the assumption that competence-based approaches are largely accepted and unproblematic.
Discussion Paper 01/2011. Project Scope, Research Questions and Assumptions
This paper set out for the members of the Consultation Steering Panel an overview of the research team’s approach, research questions and proposed methodology. It also introduced a number of assumptions:
(a) Recommendations for change must, so far as possible, be evidenced-based.
(b) The focus of the Review is on assuring competence to deliver legal services.
(c) The Review is shaped by the new regulatory context.
(d) The Review is sector-wide in its scope.
Discussion Paper 02/2011. Equality, Diversity and Social Mobility
This paper offers a general map of the sector in terms of its demographic composition, drawing primarily on the literature reviewed as part of Phase 1 of LETR. It explores the ways in which existing education and training practices might constitute initial and continuing barriers to access, and are hence a potential constraint on diversity and social mobility, and identifies a range of questions to which we would welcome responses from stakeholders and other interested parties.
Discussion Paper 01/2012. Key Issues I: Call for Evidence
This paper provides a brief description of the context for the Review, focussing particularly on the current regulatory framework, and discusses emerging issues from the work undertaken to date. The paper then describes some of the key strengths and weaknesses of the current system, and seeks to establish a relatively high-level consensus on what needs to change. While comments on any aspect of this paper are welcome, the following are topics on which the research team would be particularly interested in receiving views, analysis and evidence: The extent to which the overarching structure of LSET is or is not ‘fit for purpose’; any weaknesses that exist in respect of the existing stages in SET, and the extent to which there is willingness to consider radical change in the LSET system; and the extent to which the objectives and assumptions of the Legal Services Act (LSA) and the moves to Outcomes Focussed Regulation may be creating new or additional problems for the regulation of LSET.
Briefing Paper 1/2012. Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes Required for Practice at Present
This paper draws on previous studies and on current standards and competence this paper draws on previous studies and on current standards and competence frameworks used by a cross-section of regulators, professional bodies and employers in the field to identify a range of knowledge, skills and attitudes for paralegal practice, and for professional practice at point of qualification and post-qualification. The results are presented as a set of broad taxonomies for each of these ‘levels’ (broadly defined). This initial evaluation also identifies a range of generic skills, knowledge, behaviours and attitudes that may be missing from the existing frameworks and regulatory structure.
Briefing Paper 2/2012. Future Workforce Demand in the Legal Services Sector
This report, produced by Professor Rob Wilson of Warwick Institute of Employment Research (IER), examines the changing pattern of legal employment through employment projections for the legal services sector in England and Wales. The projections are based primarily on official statistics. The paper is divided into two parts: a summary report which highlights the main quantitative findings from this study and speculates on their implications for the future of legal services education and training, and a fuller technical report which sets out a baseline of quantitative information about the changing workforce over the decade to 2020, and identifies some gaps in and limits of existing data on the legal services workforce.
Briefing Paper 3/2012. Provocations and Perspectives
In this paper LETR Consultant Richard Susskind explores a range of issues and challenges facing the Review. He predicts that the next 30 years are likely to offer “immeasurably greater upheaval” in the legal services market. In this context the Review is a critical opportunity to invent the future. In so doing we need to focus on three things: what is changing, what the purposes of education and training should be, and the considerable impact of IT on the delivery of both legal services and legal education and training. The paper goes on to highlight, among other things, the following needs:
- to develop a new generation of ‘hybrid professionals’;
- to create opportunities for students to study current and future trends in legal services, and to develop new skills, such as risk and project management;
- to address key training problems for the profession as clients become less willing to subsidise training, and traditional trainee work becomes less available as a consequence of outsourcing, etc.;
- to develop tools and cultures that support just-in-time rather than just-in case learning;
- to ensure that all law students have the opportunity to develop a ‘thick understanding’ of law, its theory, history, structure and impact on society;
- to reduce the missed opportunities for research, collaboration and training that arise from existing gaps between academics and practitioners;
- to create a formal structure that will facilitate the systematic appraisal of the education and training system and training needs every three to five years.
Discussion Paper 02/2012. Key Issues II: Developing the Detail
This paper is the last of the four LETR Discussion Papers to be published as part of the research phase of the Review. It sets out to (a) identify short-term future trends in the delivery of legal services and consider their implications for legal services education and training (LSET); (b) summarise responses to Discussion Paper 01/2012, relate them to findings emerging from the research team’s fieldwork and identify key issues for the Review; (c) offer some initial indications of solutions under consideration, and to highlight important aspects of the relatively high-level, structural work the research team is undertaking on the frameworks, standards and tools for regulating LSET, and (d) seek further information, evidence and views from stakeholders on a range of specific questions raised by the research team’s work to date, and on the future direction of LSET.
Research Update 12/01. Contextual Analysis: Progress and Headline Findings
This paper describes the methodology and core areas of work conducted as stage 2 (‘contextual analysis’) of the LETR research phase, and highlights a range of interim findings from work with both the regulated and unregulated sectors. Its aim (and that of the stage 3 report which will follow it) is primarily descriptive. It sets out what the research team have done, how they have done it, and outlines work remaining, without seeking to draw firm conclusions from it.
Research Update 12/02. Workforce Development: Progress and Headline Findings
This paper describes the core areas of work conducted as part of stage 3 (‘workforce development’ and future training needs) of the LETR research phase. It highlights a range of findings concerning the knowledge skills and attributes required for practice; the role of technology and future forms of practice; paralegal and ‘technician’ roles within the sector and barriers to entry. The paper concludes with a section on legal developments in Wales and their implications for the LETR.
Briefing Paper 4/2012. Symposium Report
This paper contains keynote papers and summaries of the parallel and workshop sessions from the LETR Symposium held in July 2012.
Presentations at public events: research team
12-14 April 2013: Prof Avrom Sherr, plenary opening talk on Legal Education and Globalisation Commonwealth Legal Education Association Conference, University of Kwazulu, Durban South Africa.
20-21 June 2012: Jane Ching, presentation to National Law Students Forum, Nottingham Trent University.22 May 2012: Prof Julian Webb, presentation to the Westminster Legal Policy Forum ‘Access to the legal profession, and reforming legal education and training’.
3 May 2012: Prof Julian Webb, Prof Paul Maharg, Jane Ching, presentation after Nottingham Law School Debate, Nottingham Trent University.
29-30 March 2012: Prof Paul Maharg, BILETA 2012 conference, University of Northumbria.
25 November 2011: Prof Julian Webb, presentation to the Regulating the Legal Profession Conference, University College, Dublin.
19 November 2011: Jane Ching, presentation to the Society of Black Lawyers’ Legal Futures event, City University.
Public events attended: Co-Chairs
15 November 2012: Lord Upjohn Lecture by Lord Neuberger. Association of Law Teachers.
18 October 2012: Westminster Legal Policy Forum – Alternative Business Structures and Legal Services.
4 July 2012: Dinner President of the Law Society.
4 July 2012: Bar Council Garden Party.
12 June 2012: Society of Legal Scholars Conference.
31 May 2012: CILEx Presidential Lunch.
22 May 2012: Westminster Legal Policy Forum – The Scope and Structure of Legal Services Regulation.
10 May 2012: LSB Seminar – Cardiff University: Impact of changes on Welsh jurisdiction.
1 – 3 April 2012: Association of Law Teachers Conference
27 March 2012: CILEx drinks reception.
29 March 2012: LSB Education and Training Seminar (Leeds).
15 March 2012: LSB Seminar – Demonstrating Competence.
29 February 2012: LSB Education and Training Seminar (London).
16 February 2012: BME Conference – University of Chester.
2 February 2012: Westminster Legal Policy Forum – The Future of Legal Aid.
24 November 2011: Law Society Legal Breakfast – The Lawyer of the Future.
9 November 2011: Legal Services Regulation Forum Conference.
12 October 2011: Breakfast Roundtable, organised by the Office of Fair Trading.
11 October 2011: UCL debate/discussion on the topic of the Review.
6 September 2011: Westminster Legal Policy Forum – The Future of the Legal Services Market – Alternative Business Structures and Challenges for Effective Regulation.
14 July 2011: Westminster Legal Policy Forum – Reforming the Courts and Tribunals Service – Challenges for Modernisation and Prospects for Alternative Dispute Resolution.
26 May 2011: BSB Clementi Debate: Focus on CPD.
Speakers, facilitators and conveners at the LETR Symposium
James Atkin, Co-Operative Legal Services
Professor Stuart Bell, York Law School
Professor Julia Black, Department of Law and Centre for the Analysis of Risk and Regulation at the London School of Economics
Julie Brannan, Oxford Brookes University
Diane Burleigh, CILEx
Ashley Chambers, Wragge & Co
Karl Chapman, Riverview Law
Peter Crisp, BPP
Kate Edwards, Co-Operative Legal Services
Rosy Emodi, Society of Black Lawyers
Dr Rachel Field, Queensland University of Technology
Pamela Henderson, Nottingham Law School
Tony King, Clifford Chance LLP
Dr Julian Lonbay, Birmingham Law School
Taryn Lee QC
Jane Masey, Allen & Overy LLP
Professor Stephen Mayson, Legal Services Institute
Steve Mark, Legal Services Commissioner for New South Wales, Australia
Mark Protherough, ICAEW
Professor Wes Pue, University of British Columbia
Professor Trudie Roberts, Leeds Institute of Medical Education
Alex Roy, Legal Services Board
Professor Andrew Saunders, Birmingham Law School
Professor Richard Susskind OBE
Charles Welsh, Skills for Justice
Neil Wightman, Legal Services Consumer Panel
Professor Rob Wilson, Warwick Institute of Employment Research
Tanya Wilkins, OFT
Emily Windsor, BSB