ACLEC (1996). First Report on Legal Education and Training. Retrieved from

Albrecht, W. S. & Sack, R. J. (2000). Accounting education: charting the course through a perilous future. American Accounting Association, Accounting Education Series , 16.

American Bar Association (2008). Report of the Outcome Measures Committee. Retrieved from

American Bar Association (2012). Task Force on the Future of Legal Education. Retrieved from

American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (1998). CPA Vision Project: Focus on the Horizon. New York: AICPA.

American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (1999). The AICPA Core Competency Framework for Entry into the Accounting Profession. New York: AICPA.

American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (2012). CPA Vision Project: Final Report. Retrieved from

APIL (n.d). Certificate in Personal Injury Law. Retrieved from

APLEC (2002). Competency Standards for Entry Level Lawyers. Retrieved from

APLEC (2012). Review of the APLEC & LACC Competency Standards for Entry-Level lawyers: Discussion Paper prepared by the APLEC Executive. Retrieved from

Association of Costs Lawyers (n.d). The ACL Modular Training Course Prospectus and Membership Guidance. Retrieved from

Australian Learning and Teaching Council (2010). Bachelor of Laws: Learning and Teaching Academic Standards Statement. Retrieved from

Baron, H. (2011). Evaluation of use of Aptitude Tests for entry to the Legal Practice Course. Retrieved from

Bar Standards Board (2008). Review of the Bar Vocational Course: Report of the Working Group. Retrieved from

Bar Standards Board (2012a). Bar Professional Training Course, Course Specification Requirements and Guidance. Retrieved from

Bar Standards Board (2012b). Bar Training Regulations 2012. Retrieved from

Bar Standards Board (2012c). Pupillage Handbook. Retrieved from

Bar Standards Board (n.d). Public Access Scheme Recognition as an approved training provider for the Public Access Course. Retrieved from

Bartlett, F. & Aitken, l. (2009). Competence in caring in legal practice. International Journal of the Legal Profession, 16(3), 241.

Barton, K., Cunningham, C., Jones, C. & Maharg, P. (2006). Valuing what clients think: standardized clients and the assessment of communicative competence. Clinical Law Review, 13(1), 1-65.

Bogo, M. Katz, E., Regehr, C., Logie, C., Mylopoulos, M. & Tufford, L. (2013). Toward understanding meta-competence: An analysis of students’ reflection on their simulated interviews. Social Work Education, 32(2), 259-273.

Bolt-Lee, C. & Foster, S. (2003). The core competency framework: a new element in the continuing call for accounting education change in the United States. Accounting Education, 12(1), 33.

Bone, A. ( 1999). Ensuring Successful Assessment. Retrieved from

Boritz, J. & Carnaghan, C. (2003). Competency‐based education and assessment for the accounting profession: a critical review. Canadian Accounting Perspectives, 2(1), 7.

Brown, G. (2006). Explaining. In Hargie, O. (ed), The Handbook of Communication Skills. 3rd ed. London: Routledge.

Buckley, S., Coleman, J., Davison, I., Khan, K., Zamora, J, Malick, S., Morley, D., Pollard, D., Ashcroft, T., Popovic, C. & Sayers, J. (2009). The educational effects of portfolios on undergraduate student learning: a Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME) systematic review. BEME Guide No. 11. Medical Teacher, 31(4), 282.

Burge, S. (2003). Undergraduate medical curricula: are students being trained to meet future service needs? Clinical Medicine, 3(3), 243.

Callahan, D. (1998). AMEE Guide No. 14: Outcomes-based education: preface – medical education and the goals of medicine. Medical Teacher, 20(2), 85-86

Cavenagh, P., Leinster, S. & Miles, S. (eds)(2011). The Changing Face of Medical Education. Abingdon: Radcliffe Publishing.

Chartered Institute of Legal Executives (n.d.). CILEx Level 3 Professional Diploma in Law and Practice. Retrieved from

Chartered Institute of Legal Executives (n.d.). CILEx Level 6 Diploma in Law and Practice. Retrieved from

Cheetham, G. & Chivers, G. (1996). Towards a holistic model of professional competence. Journal of European Industrial Training, 20(5), 20.

Cizek, G. & Bunch, M. (2006). Standard-Setting: A Guide to Establishing and Evaluating Performance Standards on Tests. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

College of Law, New Zealand (n.d.). Understanding Resilience. Retrieved from

Cooke, M; Irby, D & O’Brien, B.C. (2010). Educating Physicians: A Call for Reform of Medical School and Residency. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Cooper, C. & Dwyer, G. (2011) Some positive news about depression. Australasian Law Management Journal. Retrieved from

Cooper, J. (1991). What is legal competence? Modern Law Review, 54(1), 112.

Cort, H. & Sammons, J. (1980). The search for good lawyering: a concept and model of lawyering competencies. Cleveland State Law Review, 29, 397.

Costs Lawyer Standards Board (2013). Training and CPD Rules. Retrieved from

Council for Licensed Conveyancers (n.d). Information For Applicants To Be Registered As A Student With CLC. Retrieved from

Council of Australian Law Deans (2012). Juris Doctor Threshold Learning Outcomes. Retrieved from

Davis, M. (2003). Outcome-based education. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 30(3), 227.

Dearing, R (1997), Higher education in the learning society, Report of the National Committee of Enquiry into Higher Education, HMSO, London.

Devlin, R., Lessard, H., Macdonald, R., Majury, D. & Rochette, A., (2009). Response to the consultation paper of the Task Force on the Canadian Common Law Degree of the Federation of Law Societies of Canada, Canadian Association of Law Teachers/Canadian Law and Society Association. Canadian Legal Education Annual Review, 151. Retrieved from SSRN:

Dryden Henningsen, D. & Cionea, I. (2007). The role of comforting skill and professional competence in the attorney-client relationship. Journal of Legal Education, 57(4), 530.

Economides, K. & Smallcombe, J. (1991). Preparatory Skills Training for Trainee Solicitors. Research Study No. 7. London: Law Society.

Epstein, R. & Hundert, E. (2002). Defining and assessing professional competence. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(2), 226-35.

Eraut, M. & Cole, G. (1993). Assessing Competence in the Professions. Sheffield: Employment Department.

Eraut, M. (2007) Professional knowledge and learning at work’.Knowledge, Work and Society, 45.

Federation of Law Societies of Canada (2009). Task Force on the Canadian Common Law Degree: Final Report. Retrieved from

Federation of Law Societies of Canada (2012a). National Admission Standards Project: Phase One Report. Retrieved from

Federation of Law Societies of Canada (2012b). National Admission Standards Project: National Entry to Practice Competency Profile for Lawyers and Quebec Notaries. Retrieved from

Federation of Law Societies of Canada (2012c). National Entry to Practice Competency Profile Validation Survey Report. Retrieved from

Financial Times/Managing Partners’ Forum (2011) A New Dawn: Lessons for Law Firm Management in the Post-crisis World . London: Financial Times.

Flood, J.(1991). Doing business: the management of uncertainty in lawyers’ work. Law &Society Review 25, 41-72.

Forristal, T. (2002). CAP Forum: the future of accounting education: the response of chartered accountants. Canadian Accounting Perspectives, 1(1), 80.

Frank, J. & Danoff, D. (2007). The CanMEDS initiative: implementing an outcomes-based framework of physician competencies. Medical Teacher, 29, 642.

Frank, J. et al. (2010). Competency-based medical education: theory to practice. Medical Teacher, 32(8), 638-645.

Fry, E., Crewe, J. & Wakeford, R. (2012). The Qualified Lawyers Transfer Scheme: innovative assessment and practice in a high stakes professional exam. Law Teacher, 46(2), 132.

Gammie, E. & Joyce, Y. (2009). Competence-based approaches to the assessment of professional accountancy training work experience requirements: the ICAS experience. Accounting Education, 18(4 & 5), 443.

Garrett, R., Matkin, G. & Kumar, V. (2005). Regulation, E-learning, and the Changing Structures of Higher Education. A White Paper to Guide Discussion for the International Seminar Regulation of E-Learning: New National and International Policy Perspectives, November 16, 2005. Center for Studies in Higher Education, University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved from

Garvey, J.B. (2010). New Hampshire’s performance-based variant of the bar examination: the Daniel Webster Scholar Honors Program moves beyond the pilot phase. The Bar Examiner, 14, 13. Retrieved from

General Medical Council (2009). Tomorrow’s Doctors. Retrieved from

General Medical Council (2010). Final Report of the Education and Training Regulation Policy Review: Recommendations and Options for the Future Regulation of Education and Training. Retrieved from

George, S. Haque, M.S. & Oyebode, F. (2006). Standard setting: comparison of two methods. BMC Medical Education, 6, 46.

Gruppen, L., Mangrulkar, J. & Kolars, J. (2010). Competency-based education in the health professions: Implications for improving global health. Paper for the Commission on Education of Health Professionals in the 21st Century. Retrieved from

Hager, P., Gonczi, A. & Athanasou, J. (1994). General issues about assessment of competence. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 19(1), 3-16.

Harden, R., Crosby, J., Davis, M. & Friedman, M. (1999). AMEE Guide No. 14: Outcome-based education: Part 5 – From competency to meta-competency: a model for the specification of learning outcomes. Medical Teacher, 21(6), 546.

Hassall, T., Joyce, J., Arquero Montaño, J. & Donoso Anes, J. (2005). Priorities for the development of vocational skills in management accountants: a European perspective. Accounting Forum, 29, 379.

Hayes Committee (1972). Training for the Management of Human Resources. London: HMSO.

Hess, B., Weng, W., Lynn, L., Holmboe, E. & Lipner, R.(2011). Setting a fair performance standard for physicians’ quality of patient care. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26(5), 467-473.

ILEX Professional Standards (n.d.) Work Based Learning Handbook. Retrieved from

Institute of Paralegals (n.d.). Competency Standards. Retrieved from

Intellectual Property Regulation Board (2011). Rules for the Examination and Admission of Individuals to the Registers of Patent and Trade Mark Attorneys 2011. Retrieved from

International Accounting Education Standards Board (2012). IES 3 description of Initial Professional Development – Professional Skills. Retrieved from

International Federation of Accountants (1994). 2000 and Beyond: a Strategic Framework for Prequalification Education for the Accountancy Profession in the Year 2000 and Beyond. New York: IFAC.

International Federation of Accountants C (1996). International Public Sector Accounting Standards Project. New York: IFAC.

Jackling, B. & De Lange, P. (2009). Do accounting graduates skills meet the expectations of employers? A matter of convergence or divergence. Accounting Education, 18(4-5), 369.

Joint Academic Stage Board (2012). Joint Academic Stage Board Handbook. Retrieved from w

Jones, P.A. (1994). Competences, Learning Outcomes and Legal Education. Legal Skills Working Paper London: Institute of Advanced Legal Studies.

Karle, H. (2006). Global standards and accreditation in medical education: a view from the WFME. Academic Medicine, 81(12 Suppl), S43.

Kelly, M., Davey, H. & Haigh, N. (1999). Contemporary accounting education and society. Accounting Education, 8(4), 321.

Kennedy, D., Hyland, A. & Ryan, N. (2009). Learning Outcomes and Competences. Retrieved from

Kennedy, D., Hyland, A. & Ryan, N. (2012). Writing and Using Learning Outcomes: a Practical Guide. Retrieved from

Lambe, P. & Bristow, D. (2010). What are the most important non-academic attributes of good doctors? A Delphi survey of clinicians. Medical Teacher, 32(8), e347-354.

Lancet Commission (2011). Health Professionals for a New Century: Transforming Education to Strengthen Health Systems in an Interdependent World. Retrieved from

Law Admissions Consultative Committee (2010). Rethinking Academic Requirements for Admission. Retrieved from

Lawshe, C. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28, 563-575.

Law Society of England and Wales (n.d.). Criminal Litigation Accreditation Scheme. Retrieved from

Law Society of Scotland (2009) Professional Education and Training Stage 1 – PEAT 1: Accreditation Guidelines for Applicants. Retrieved from

Law Society of Scotland (2010) Foundation Programme (Scottish Exempting Degree): Accreditation Guidelines for Applicants. Retrieved from

Law Society of Scotland,( n.d.) The PEAT 2 Outcomes. Retrieved from

Legal Ombudsman, (2012). Consumer Experiences of Complaint Handling in the Legal Services Market – First-Tier Complainants. Retrieved from

Legal Services Institute (2010). The Education and Training of Solicitors: Time for Change. Retrieved from

Legal Services Institute (2012). Reforming Legal Education. Retrieved from

Leung, W-C. (2002). Competency based medical training: review. British Medical Journal, 323, 693.

Lilley, P. & Harden, R. (2003). Standards and medical education. Medical Teacher, 25(4), 349.

Lindsay, H. (2012). Patterns of learning in the accountancy profession under an output-based continuing professional development scheme. Accounting Education, 21(6), 615.

Maharg, P. (2004). Professional legal education in Scotland. Georgia University State Law Review, Summer, 20, 947- 76.

Maharg, P. (2013). ‘Associated life’: democratic professionalism and the moral imagination. In Bankowski, Z. & del Mar, M., eds, The Moral Imagination and the Legal Life. Beyond Text in Legal Education. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 111-44.

Master of the Faculties (1998). Notaries (Qualification) Rules 1998. Retrieved from

Master of the Faculties (2009). Notaries (Post-Admission) Rules 2009. Retrieved from

Maughan, C., Maughan, M. & Webb, J. (1995). Sharpening the mind or narrowing it? The limitations of outcome and performance measures in legal education. Law Teacher, 29, 255-278.

Maughan, C. & Webb, J. (1996). Taking reflection seriously: How was it for us? In Webb, J. and Maughan, C. (eds) Teaching Lawyers’ Skills. London: Butterworths.

Maughan, M. (1996). A capability approach to assessing skills on the LPC: a strategy for developing effective future performance. In Webb, J. and Maughan, C. (eds) Teaching Lawyers’ Skills. London: Butterworths.

McGaghie, W., Miller, G., Sajid, A. & Telder, T. (1978). Competency-Based Curriculum Development in Medical Education: An Introduction. Retrieved from

McKee, A. & Eraut, M. (2012). Introduction. In McKee, A. & Eraut, M. (eds) Learning Trajectories, Innovation and Identity for Professional Development. London: Springer.

Moon, J. (2004). A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning: Theory and Practice. Abingdon: RoutledgeFalmer

Moorhead, R., Sherr, A., Webley, L., Rogers, S., Sherr, L., Patterson, A. & Domberger, S. (2001). Quality and cost: final report on the contracting of Civil, Non-Family Advice and Assistance Pilot. London: Stationery Office.

National Association of Licensed Paralegals (n.d.). Paralegal Training Pathway. Retrieved from

Newble, D.I., Dauphinee, D., Dawson-Saunders, B., et al (1994). Guidelines for the development of effective and efficient procedures for the assessment of clinical competence. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 6, 213–220.

Newstead, S. (2002). Examining the examiners: why are we so bad at assessing students? Psychology Learning and Teaching, 2(2), 70-75.

Nottingham Trent University (2012). Professional Certificate in Trade Mark Law and Practice. Retrieved from

Papadakis, M., Arnold, G., Blank, L., Holmboe, B. & Lipner, R. (2008). Performance during internal medicine residency training and subsequent disciplinary action by state licensing boards. Annals of Internal Medicine, 148, 869.

Polding, L. (2010). Getting started with e-portfolios: Oxford Institute of Legal Practice. Retrieved from

Price, M., O’Donovan, B., Rust, C. & Carroll, J. (2008). Assessment standards: a manifesto for change. Brookes eJounal of Learning and Teaching, 2, 3. Retrieved from

Quality Assurance Agency (2007). Subject Benchmark Statement – Law. Retrieved from

Quality Assurance Scheme for Advocates (2012). Draft Scheme Handbook. Retrieved from

Queen Mary, University of London (n.d.). Certificate in Trade Mark Law and Practice. Retrieved from

Redmond, P. & Roper, C. (2001). Legal Education and Training in Hong Kong. Retrieved from

Rust, C., O’Donovan, B. & Price, M. (2005). A social constructivist assessment process model: how the research literature shows us this could be best practice. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 30(3), 231-240.

Scicluna, H., Grimm, M., O’Sullivan, A., Harris, P., Pilotto, L., Jones, P. & McNeil, H. (2012). Clinical capabilities of graduates of an outcomes-based integrated medical program. BMC Medical Education, 12, 23.

Schön, D. (1984). The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. New York: Basic Books.

Shapland, J., Wild, R. & Johnston, V. (1995). Pupillage and the Vocational Course. Sheffield: Institute for the Study of the Legal Profession.

Shapland, J. & Sorsby, A. (1995). Starting Practice: Work and Training at the Junior Bar. Sheffield: Institute for the Study of the Legal Profession.

Siegel, G. & Sorenson, J. (1999). Counting More, Counting Less. The 1999 Practice Analysis of Management Accounting. Montrale, NC: Institute of Management Accountants.

Smith, M. & Tam, T. (2007). Findings from the Legal Advice Sector Workforce Surveys. Retrieved from

Solicitors Regulation Authority (2007). Standards of Competence for solicitors and representatives advising at the police station. Retrieved from

Solicitors Regulation Authority (2008). Training Trainee Solicitors. Retrieved from…/requirements.pdf

Solicitors Regulation Authority (2009, v 1.4). Work-based learning Pilot: Handbook for all Participants. Retrieved from

Solicitors Regulation Authority (2011). Legal Practice Course Outcomes. Retrieved from

Solicitors Regulation Authority (2012). Information for Providers of Legal Practice Courses. . Retrieved from

Solicitors Regulation Authority (2013a, v 7). SRA Training Regulations 2011 – Part 2 Training Provider Regulations. Retrieved from

Solicitors Regulation Authority (2013b, v 7). The QLTS Regulations 2011. Retrieved from

Solicitors Regulation Authority (n.d.). Statement of Standards for solicitor higher court advocates. Retrieved from

Spencer, J. & Jordan, R. (2001). Educational outcomes and leadership to meet the needs of modern health care. Quality in Health Care, 10 (Suppl II), ii38.

Stern, D., Wojtczak, A. & Schwarz, M. (2010). Accreditation of Medical Education: A Global Outcomes-Based Approach. Paper to the Commission on Education of Health Professionals for the 21st Century. Retrieved from

Stronach, I., Corbin, B., McNamara, O., Stark, S. & Warne, T. (2002). Towards an uncertain politics of professionalism: teacher and nurse identities in flux. Journal of Education Policy, 17, 109-138.

Stuckey, R. et al (2007). Best Practices for Legal Education: A Vision and a Road Map. Columbia, SC: Clinical Legal Education Association.

Sullivan, W., Colby, A., Welch Wegner, J., Bond, L. & Shulman, L. (2007). Educating Lawyers: Preparation for the Profession of Law. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass (‘Carnegie Report’).

Swing, S. (2007). The ACGME outcome project: retrospective and prospective. Medical Teacher, 29, 648.

UCL Faculty of Laws (2012). Notarial Practice Course 2013-2015. Retrieved from

Universities UK/Guild HE (2012). Bringing it all together – introducing the HEAR. Retrieved from

Van Der Vleuten, C. & Schuwirth, L. (2005). Assessing professional competence: From methods to programmes. Medical Education, 39(3), 309-317.

Vanilla Research (2010). Quality in Legal Services. Retrieved from

Vines, P. (2011). Working Towards the Resilient Lawyer: Early Law School Strategies. Retrieved from

Webb, J. (2002). Portfolio-Based Learning and Assessment in Law. Teaching Resource Notes Series, UKCLE Retrieved from

Wilson, F.R., Pan, W. & Schumsky, D.A. (2012). Recalculation of the critical values for Lawshe’s content validity ratio. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 45(3), 197-210.

Winterton, J., Delamare-Le Deist, F. & Stringfellow, E. (2005) Typology of knowledge, skills and competences: clarification of the concept and prototype. Retrieved from

Wolf, A. (1995). Competence-Based Assessment. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Wolf, A. (2001). Competence-Based Assessment. In Raven, J. & and Stephenson, J. (eds) Competence in the Learning Society. New York: Peter Lang.

YouGov (2011) First Tier Complaints Handling. Retrieved from